Laufende Habilitationen

Dr. Slavomir Dlugos, (Promotion an der Universität Wien)

Wissenschaftliche Begleitung: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sigrid Müller  

DDDr. Karl Hunstorfer, (Promotion an der Universität Wien)­
Medizinische Indikationsstellung als Paradigma einer Theologischen Ethik.

Die ärztliche Indikationsstellung gehört zu den Kernaufgaben ärztlicher Tätigkeit. Im Sinne des lat. Wortes „indicare“ weist sie darauf hin, was im Falle einer konkreten Erkrankung oder von aufgetretenen Symptomen zu tun ist, die auf Wunsch des/der Betroffenen abgeklärt werden sollen. Im Sinne der Patientenautonomie und dem Selbstbestimmungsrecht ist die Indikationsstellung eine vorzuschlagende Maßnahme, der nach eingehender Aufklärung der Patient zustimmen muss. Das bedeutet, dass die Indikation noch nicht die Handlung selbst ist, sondern ein Urteil, das zum Ausdruck bringt, was getan werden sollte. Wie kommt es zu diesem Urteil und welche Art von Urteil (Werturteil, Sachurteil, etc.) ist die ärztliche Indikationsstellung? Aus medizinethischer und philosophisch-theologisch ethischer Sicht wird danach gefragt. Die Indikationsstellung als ein Urteil lässt an die wisssenschaftstheoretische Diskussion über das Verständnis eines Urteils in ethischer Hinsicht mit praktischer Relevanz und Gestaltung des persönlichen wie öffentlichen Lebens denken. Einerseits die Frage nach dem Verständnis der Indikationsstellung und andererseits einem ethischen Urteil erscheint nicht nur interessant, sondern sie verweist vielmehr auf die Bedeutung und die Wichtigkeit des Urteilens im täglichen Leben. Ein Vergleich beider Themen erweckt Interesse, da sich bei näherem Zusehen mehr Ähnlichkeiten und Gemeinsamkeiten zeigen als zunächst erwartet.

Wissenschaftliche Begleitung: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sigrid Müller

Dr. Gusztáv Kovacs, (Promotion an der Universität Wien)
Thought experiments in bioethics

­Due to their expressive nature, thought experiments (TEs) are important tools in the hand of ethicists to approach difficult moral problems with the help of expressive stories. They are also keenly applied in lectures and books to demonstrate complex questions and make them accessible to a broader audience.
The rise in the popularity of TEs dates back to the 1970's, when questions of practical philosophy - such as just war theory, the right to abortion, or international justice -, gained a central position in public academic debates. TEs were often used as arguments in these debates, and they are often still used and considered as such. The use of an imaginary scenario helps ethicists, independent of their particular approach, to test their theories and formulate arguments under laboratory conditions. They can serve as a test of underlying ethical theories, such as utilitarianism or consequentialism (e.g. The trolley problem), but may also to inquire concrete ethical questions, such as abortion (e.g. The famous violinist). With the emergence of bioethics, TEs became important mediators between representatives of the various disciplines participating in the new project. Despite their popularity, TEs are not an unproblematic form of argumentation. Although they often bear the characteristics of arguments, their appropriateness to serve as such is questionable.
The habilitation thesis aims at challenging the use of TEs as ethical arguments, and to point rather at its pragmatic value: their ability to stimulate moral intuition, and to function as intuition pumps (Daniel Dennett) in ethical research and reasoning. The analysis of the pragmatic features of TEs is expected to show both the limits and the prospects of their use in bioethics and also in theological ethics.

Wissenschaftliche Begleitung: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sigrid Müller

Dr. Nenad Polgar, (Promotion an der Universität Leuven)
The Origen(s), Meaning and Relevance of the Concept of Intrinsic Evil.

­­The concept of intrinsic evil has become a pillar of official Catholic sexual ethics from which it started to work its way further into other areas of theology and Church practice. From Casti Conubii to Veritatis Splendor, one could hardly find a teaching office’s document on sexual ethics that did not make use of it by pointing out some sexual acts which fit the description of intrinsically evil acts as those acts which are always morally wrong, no matter the circumstances or intention of an agent. However, the most recent use of the term, if not the concept, of intrinsic evil has seen a widening of its scope to include those acts/realities which fall under the category of social ethics. Thus, Veritatis Splendor engages in providing a reader with some examples of intrinsically evil acts by quoting, among other things, the Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes 27, which mentions “genocide, [...] voluntary suicide, [...] whatever violates the integrity of the human person, such as mutilation, physical and mental torture and attempts to coerce the spirit, [...]”, etc. ­­
When one takes this into account, it is perhaps not surprising that the concept of intrinsic evil worked its way into the political sphere, where it started to mark the Catholic approach to various issues, especially in the United States. In that sense, the examples include the document of the U.S. bishops on the political responsibility of Catholics, Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizenship, the U.S. bishops’ objection to a health care program that would finance the use of contraceptives, which “remains a grave moral concern”, and the various individual statements of bishops and other Catholic political commentators who regularly invoke the term intrinsic evil. Of course, the ‘grave moral concern’ refers to a belief that contraception is intrinsically evil. Furthermore, the former document (Forming Consciences) detected eight ‘acts’ which fit the category of intrinsic evil: abortion, euthanasia, human cloning, the destruction of embryos, genocide, torture, racism, and targeting non-combatants in war.
As the concept of intrinsic evil marches on through both moral and political spheres by shifting its meaning and, seemingly, covering ever more acts/realities, it raises a host of questions of which this project would like to focus on the following three:
(1) What is the theological background (origins/history) of this term/concept?
(2) What is/are its meaning(s)?
(3) Is it still relevant for the field of theological ethics and if so, can it be transposed (and under which conditions) to other fields such as politics?

Wissenschaftliche Begleitung:  Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sigrid Müller

Dr. Piotr Twardy, (Promotion an der Universität Posen)
Konvergenzargumentation als ein Rezeptionsort der evolutionären Anthropologie in der theologischen Ethik am Beispiel der Moralfähigkeit des Menschen.

Wissenschaftliche Begleitung: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Sigrid Müller